Okay—perhaps "fun" is a bit strong. While there are four main types of essays—expository, persuasive, analytical, and argumentative—the basic structure of any essay is the same: An introductory paragraph At least three body paragraphs A concluding paragraph A bibliography Generally, the higher your level of education, the more complex your essay structure will be. While high school students typically stick with the five-paragraph essay, university and graduate students are expected to discuss topics that require more than five paragraphs to flesh out.
Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J. Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from B. These inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices.
Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travelers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens.
One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialismthe most common predecessor of direct cultural change.
Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture. The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W.
From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian adopting the host culture and abandoning their culture of originPhilistine failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of originand creative-type able to adapt to the host culture while preserving their culture of origin.
Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups InMilton Gordon 's book Assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic.
Later, Young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process. Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence.
In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent. Thus, the term adaptation is used by Gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power pp.
According to this definition, any attempt to maintain one's original values, beliefs, ways of thinking, feelings, or behaviors constitutes mental illness or "maladaptation" p.
This is further emphasized by Gudykunst and Kimstating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves p.
Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity Again, this is not integration but rather dissolution of the newcomer's original identity.
According to Gudykunst and Kimincreased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant. Ironically, Gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness [caused by "conformity pressure" p.
No matter how unjust or cruel, Gudykunst and Kim argue that the host's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving constitutes the "higher level" of psychic evolution and any resistance to conform indicates that the immigrant is communicatively incompetent, immature, mentally ill pp.
Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" p.
In contradistinction from Gudykunst and Kim's version of adaptive evolution, Eric M. Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion a,  a,   a,    maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration.
According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form.
Kramer's a, b, c, theory of Cultural Fusion, which is based on systems theory and hermeneuticsargues that it is impossible for a person to unlearn themselves and that by definition, "growth" is not a zero sum process that requires the disillusion of one form for another to come into being but rather a process of learning new languages and cultural repertoires ways of thinking, cooking, playing, working worshiping, and so forth.
In other words, Kramer argues that one need not unlearn a language in order to learn a new one, nor does one have to unlearn who one is in order to learn new ways of dancing, cooking, talking and so forth.
Unlike Gudykunst and KimKramer argues that this blending of language and culture results in cognitive complexity, or the ability to switch between cultural repertoires.
To put Kramer's ideas simply, learning is growth rather than unlearning. Kramer[ edit ] Although numerous models of acculturation exist, the most complete models take into consideration the changes occurring at the group and individual levels of both interacting groups.How many paragraphs in an IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay?
Paragraphs are marked by the examiner in IELTS writing task 2. The criterion of Coherence and Cohesion, which is 25% of your writing marks, is about linking and paragraphing. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah The PTE writing section can be incredibly intimidating, especially the “write essay” task.
Writing an essay has always been somewhat of an art, even for native English speakers. Also, “it starts to look like me and the feminists” should be “looks like I”. And “untitled” doesn’t really make sense.
And if biology is a hard science, it’s .